Gałązka A., Marzec-Grządziel A., Varsadiya M., Niedźwiecki J., Gawryjołek K., Furtak K., Przybyś M., Grządziel J. (2022): Biodiversity and Metabolic Potential of Bacteria in Bulk Soil from the Peri-Root Zone of Black Alder (Alnus glutinosa), Silver Birch (Betula pendula) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris). International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23, 5, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23052633 (140 pkt. MEiN; IF = 5.924)
The formation of specific features of forest habitats is determined by the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil. The aim of the study was to determine the structural and functional biodiversity of soil microorganisms inhabiting the bulk soil from the peri-root zone of three tree species: Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, and Pinus sylvestris. Soil samples were collected from a semi-deciduous forest located in an area belonging to the Agricultural Experimental Station IUNG-PIB in Osiny, Poland. The basic chemical and biological parameters of soils were determined, as well as the structural diversity of bacteria (16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing) and the metabolic profile of microorganisms (Biolog EcoPlates). The bulk soils collected from peri-root zone of A. glutinosa were characterized by the highest enzymatic activities. Moreover, the highest metabolic activities on EcoPlates were observed in bulk soil collected in the proximity of the root system the A. glutinosa and B. pendula. In turn, the bulk soil collected from peri-root zone of P. sylvestris had much lower biological activity and a lower metabolic potential. The most metabolized compounds were L-phenylalanine, L-asparagine, D-mannitol, and gamma-hydroxy-butyric acid. The highest values of the diversity indicators were in the soils collected in the proximity of the root system of A. glutinosa and B. pendula. The bulk soil collected from P. sylvestris peri-root zone was characterized by the lowest Shannon’s diversity index. In turn, the evenness index (E) was the highest in soils collected from the P. sylvestris, which indicated significantly lower diversity in these soils. The most abundant classes of bacteria in all samples were Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria_Gp1, and Alphaproteobacteria. The classes Bacilli, Thermoleophilia, Betaproteobacteria, and Subdivision3 were dominant in the B. pendula bulk soil. Streptosporangiales was the most significantly enriched order in the B. pendula soil compared with the A. glutinosa and P. sylvestris. There was a significantly higher mean proportion of aerobic nitrite oxidation, nitrate reduction, sulphate respiration, and sulfur compound respiration in the bulk soil of peri-root zone of A. glutinosa. Our research confirms that the evaluation of soil biodiversity and metabolic potential of bacteria can be of great assistance in a quality and health control tool in the soils of forested areas and in the forest production. Identification of bacteria that promote plant growth and have a high biotechnological potential can be assume a substantial improvement in the ecosystem and use of the forest land.