Kuźniar A., Włodarczyk K., Grządziel J., Goraj W., Gałązka A., Wolińska A. (2019): Culture-independent analysis of an endophytic core microbiome in two species of wheat: Triticum aestivum L. (cv. ‘Hondia’) and the first report of microbiota in Triticum spelta L.(cv. ‘Rokosz’). Systematic and Applied Microbiology
The main goal of the study was to determine the structure of endophytic bacteria inhabiting different parts (endosperm, germ, roots, coleoptiles, and leaves) of two wheat species, Triticum aestivum L. (cv. ‘Hondia’) and Triticum spelta L. (cv. ‘Rokosz’), in order to provide new knowledge about the stability and/or changeability of the core microbiome in different plant organs. The endophytic core microbiome is associated with plants throughout their whole life cycle; however, plant organs can determine the actual endophytic community. Therefore, next generation sequencing with MiSeq Illumina technology was applied to identify the endophytic microbiome of T. aestivum and T. spelta. Bioinformatic analyses were performed with the use of the DADA2(1.8) package and R software (3.5.1).
It was demonstrated that wheat, which is an important crop plant, was associated with beneficial endophytic bacteria inside the endosperms, germs, roots, leaves, and coleoptiles. Importantly, for the first time, biodiversity was recognized in the coleoptiles of the investigated wheat species. Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas and Janthinobacterium were shown to be common genera for both tested wheat cultivars. Among them, Pseudomonas was found to be the only endophytic genus accompanying both wheat species from the endosperm stage to the development of the leaf. Paenibacillus was recognized as a core genus for the ‘Hondia’ cv., whereas Pedobacter and Duganella constituted the core microbiome in the ‘Rokosz’ cv. In addition, the first insight into the unique and yet unrecognized endophytic microbiome of T. spelta is presented.