Smagacz J., Martyniuk S.: Take-all disease and performace of winter wheat cultivars as influenced by different forecrops in two crop rotation. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology
Wheat is often planted in short rotations or consecutively for several years on same field in absence of any break crops, which results in the build-up of soil-borne fungal pathogens. The Gaeumanoomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) is the most destructive fungal pathogen causing root rot, commonly known as “take-all” disease in wheat in Poland; however different wheat cultivars behaved differently in this regard. Therefore, in this study, five winter wheat cultivars viz. Akteur, Muszelka, Mulan, Meteor and Satyna were sown in two rotations: i) A mixed rotation with potato-winter wheat-maize-winter wheat (A) and ii) cereal rotation with oat-winter wheat-winter rye-winter wheat (D) for three consecutive years. Analyzed data disclosed that all tested winter wheat cultivars grown after rye as a forecrop observed higher infestation of their roots by take all fungus (Ggt) coupled with the lowest grain yield (5.5 to 6.2 t ha-1 in different cultivars) due to notable reduction in number of ears and 1000-grain weight. Moreover, the highest grain yield (7.3–8.5 t ha-1; averaged for 3 years) was harvested when tested wheat cultivars were sown after potato as a preceding crop. Among the tested wheat cultivars, Mulan sown after rye observed the lowest take-all index along with higher grain yield compared with other cultivars. In conclusion, wheat sown after non cereal (e.g., potato) crops harvested more yield. Moreover, wheat cultivar Mulan should be sown to get higher wheat yield in Poland if wheat is planted after cereals like rye.